Ess 2006 Edition: Computable General Equilibrium Modelling in Environmental and Resource Economics


Last update:
October 27th, 2005

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Admission and Application

Creating a .pdf copy of your paper

PDF is the standard format for sharing files across the internet. It allows authors to submit electronically while ensuring that the submitted material will display/print the same on all machines. It is platform independent and fonts and character sets are held within the PDF file; PDF viewing software is free.
Please take extra care to ensure that symbols and graphics are correct, especially if you use TeX or LaTeX (either in Scientific Word or another application environment).
If your PDF file does not print and display accurately, your hard copy submissions may or may not be used for backup, at the discretion of the Programme Chair. You should rely only on your PDF file as your submitted paper copy.

If your PDF is readable on the computer on which you prepare it, that does not alone ensure that it will be readable or printable on another computer. There are various online sources which may assist you in creating an accurate PDF file. Additionally, the settings you choose within Acrobat Distiller (especially within job options/font settings) can help you to produce your PDF file.
Specifically, if you wish to create your ownd PDF file, try to use thh Distiller from Acrobat 4.05 or better. You may also choose to select 'embed all fonts' (on the Distiller Settings/ Jop Options/ Fonts Menu).
You can check the PDF file that you output for portability by unchecking the 'Use Local Fonts' option within the Acrobat 'View' menu. In the resulting file, look for missing or distorted characters--especially ligatures, such as the character combinations 'fi' and 'fl', and greek letters).
The National Science Foundation has extensive information on PDF file creation at NSF also makes available a 'Job Options' file which aims to set your Acrobat software to generate files that can be read on and printed from any computer.
If you are a Word Perfect or Word user, you may find helpful information from The University of Chicago Press.
Here are several free ways of creating a pdf file.

1. Create Adobe PDF Online
Create Adobe PDF Online is a Web-hosted service that lets you convert a wide variety of documents into Adobe PDF files. Supported formats include MS Word, MS Publisher, MS PowerPoint, WordPerfect, PageMaker, Web pages, and many graphics formats.
Uploaded files are limited to 100 MB and a processing time limit of 10 minutes. Subscribers have an extended processing time limit of 15 minutes and priority queueing. Minimum 56 Kbps connection recommended.

2. PDFmail
PDFmail is the first solution that enables you to convert all types of documents and printing reports into universal PDF format so you can transmit them to your correspondents through your messaging service client. What's more, it's simple to back up the documents you have created. PDFmail includes password protection on documents prohibiting some operations such as printing, copying or modifying text.
It is a commercial software, but an unlimited demo version is available at

3. Win2pdf
Win2pdf installs as a printer driver under Windows NT or Windows 2000.
The program is free for non-commercial use.
You can download the software at:
To create the pdf file, just send the doc or TEX file to the win2pdf printer.
- The program does not support Windows 95 or 98.
- You'll see that when you convert your .doc or .TEX file the logo of the company will appear on the last page. To get rid of this logo, you need to register the software. To register win2pdf costs $35.

4. Ghostscript/Ghostview
This is a quick, rudimentary approach to creating a pdf file, but it usually produces a pdf format file without problems.
Ghostscript/Ghostview is used to create the pdf file from the PostScript file. It is a Postscript viewer and file converter.
It is available free and runs on most platforms.
You can download the software at:
Instructions on converting a file to PDF format are the following:
   1. Install a postscript printer driver on your system. You don't need the printer, just the driving routines for a post script printer.
   2. Make a .prn format file of your original file by printing it to a file (mark the "print to file" box in your printing dialogue).
   3. Be sure to save this file as .ps instead of .prn or whatever other default file type is offered (you may rename it as .ps).
   4. Open your .ps format file in gsview.
   5. Again print to file, this time using pdfwrite format, putting the resolution to 300.
- If you use Mathematica please note that sometimes complicated graphs are incomplete.

5. Pstill
Pstill is a PostScript to PDF converter. It means that you have to observe the same approach as for Gostscript/Gostview.
The Linux, Solaris, IRIX, AIX and HPUX versions are free for private and educational use.
The NeXTSTEP version is free to use for all remaining users of NeXTSTEP/OpenStep.
The Windows version is distributed as 'pure' shareware and must be registered and activated for all kind of use. There are two different models of use and pricing: private/educational and for commercial purposes.
You can download the software at:


This activity is part of the ESS RESECON project, that has received funding from the European Community's Sixth Framework Programme, Marie Curie Actions - Human Resources and Mobility.
Sole responsibility lies within the author and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.


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